Water links the environment, economy, and quality of life for Pakistan, just an abundant water gives vitality to our region, the lack of water can strain natural resources, stifle economic growth, and disrupt our daily routines.
What is Water Conservation?
Water conservation, also known as water use efficiency, is an integral part of water supply planning and water resource management. Water conservation is defined as the beneficial reduction in water use, waste, and loss. Water conservation is becoming a viable alternative and complement to developing new water supplies. While short-term water restrictions imposed during a water shortage can temporarily relieve pressure on water sources, lasting water conservation involves a combination of retrofits, new water saving appliances, maintenance of infrastructure, and a collective water conservation ethic focused on resource use, allocation, and protection.
Using water efficiently, also known as water conservation, reduces the amount of water needed for a specific use and is a prudent component of water resource management. The goal of water use efficiency measures is to accomplish a desired task using the minimum amount of water without harming existing systems and processes and meeting users’ performance expectations. Increasing water efficiency benefits individual users as well as the community, region, and environment. Individual benefits include lower water and sewer bills, lower energy costs for heating and pumping water, and reduced chemical use.
Increased water use efficiency also supports environmental restoration and protection. Reduced demand decreases the competition for water among urban, agricultural, and environmental needs. Water saved through efficiency measures can be used to meet new needs, in effect expanding current water supplies while protecting the environment by reducing both runoff and the need for wastewater disposal.
What is a Water Audit?
Water audit is a qualitative and quantitative analysis of water consumption to identify means of reducing, reusing and recycling of water. Water audit determines the amount of water lost from a distribution system due to leakage and other reasons such as theft, unauthorized or illegal withdrawals from the systems and the cost of such losses to the utility. Elements of water audit include a record of the amount of water supplied and stored by various sources, water consumption, water delivered to unmetered users, water loss and suggested measures to address water loss, waste water generated and treated etc.. Industrial water use audit examines the major areas which includes water used by industrial process, human consumption, personal hygiene & sanitation, washing, cleaning, , gardening etc.
Benefits of Water Audit:
- Water audit improves the knowledge and documentation of the distribution system, problem and risk areas and also better understanding of what is happening to the water after it leaves the source point.
- Leak detection programs help in minimizing leakages and tacking small problems before they become major ones. These programs lead to:
- Reduced water losses.
- Improved financial performance.
- Improved reliability of supply system.
- Enhanced knowledge of the distribution system.
- Efficient use of existing supplies.
- Better safeguard to public health and property.
- Reduced disruption, thereby improving level of service to customers.
- Water audit creates the foundation for a broader plan.
Approach and Methodology for Water Audit
The water audit is completed in 3P stages. These stages are:
- Pre audit includes collection of primary data regarding sources of water, water consumption of various purposes, waste water generated, etc. Steps followed in pre audit are: a. Water supply and usage study. b. Process study.
- Process audit is the examination of system to determine whether the water is being consumed efficiently and effectively.
- Post audit includes following steps.
- Awareness in system about water conservation.
- Documentation of Water consumption and time to time remedial measure